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The 8 Most bizarre Personality Disorders

Millions of people across the world are diagnosed as suffering from mental illness. And though most of those are disorders are common and well-known (such as depression, anxiety and phobias) there are also some unusual and bizarre disorders. For example:

1. Stockholm Syndrome – Typically seen in abducted hostages, this is where the captive shows signs of sympathy, compassion and loyalty towards the hostage taker. This occurs regardless of the way they have been treated – and even where they’ve been tortured or their life is under threat.

2. Lima Syndrome – This is the opposite of the previous syndrome. It’s where the hostage taker is extremely concerned for the plight and wellbeing of the hostages.

3. Diogenes Syndrome – This disorder is marked by severe self neglect, compulsive hoarding, reclusive tendencies, and keeping large numbers of animals at home.

4. Paris Syndrome – This is very exclusive disorder … one restricted to Japanese tourists in Paris (It’s true!) The sufferer experiences a total mental breakdown when the city fails to meet their cultural expectations (Paris is rarely as polite, romantic, peaceful and idyllic as the tourists had imagined). To cope with this experience, their embassy established a 24hr hotline to help those with the syndrome.

5. Jerusalem Syndrome – People diagnosed with this particular disorder experience delusions and spontaneous psychosis after visiting a holy city. To date, all identified sufferers have had a history of mental illness, or some kind of psychosis.

6. Capgras Delusion – In this rare disorder, the individual believes that a friend or family member has been abducted and replaced by an impostor (who looks identical to them). It is generally seen in those with schizophrenia, dementia, or some kind of brain injury.

7. Fregoli Delusion – This is the exact opposite of Capgras delusion. It is the false belief that numerous different people are actually one person who keeps changing their disguise.

8. Cotard Delusion – A person suffering from this delusion believes that they don’t exist, are dead, are putrefying or have no blood or internal organs.

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What is Adjustment Disorder?

Adjustment disorder is a short-term condition that occurs when a person is unable to cope with, or adjust to, a particular source of stress, such as a major life change, loss, or event. Because people with adjustment disorders often have symptoms of depression, it is sometimes called “situational depression.” The type of stress that can trigger adjustment disorder varies depending on the person, but can include:

- Ending of a relationship or marriage

- Losing or changing job

- Death of a loved one

- Developing a serious illness (yourself or a loved one)

- Being a victim of a crime

- Having an accident

- Undergoing a major life change (such as getting married, having a baby, or retiring from a job)

- Living through a disaster, such as a fire, flood, or hurricane

Adjustment disorder can have a wide variety of symptoms, which may include:

- Feelings of hopelessness

- Sadness

- Frequent crying

- Anxiety

- Worry

- Headaches

- Stomach aches

- Heart palpitations

- Withdrawal or isolation from people and social activities

- Absence from work or school

- Dangerous or destructive behavior, such as fighting, reckless driving, and vandalism

- Changes in appetite, either loss of appetite, or overeating

- Problems sleeping

- Feeling tired or without energy

- Increase in the use of alcohol or other drugs

Adjustment disorder can occur in anyone, and at any age.

In terms of treatment, counseling or psychotherapy are the most common approaches. Therapy helps the person understand how the stressor has affected his or her life. It also helps the person develop better coping skills. Support groups can also be helpful by allowing the person to discuss his or her concerns and feelings with people who are coping with the same stress. In some cases, medication may be used to help control anxiety symptoms or sleeping problems.

Most people with adjustment disorder recover completely. In fact, a person who is treated for adjustment disorder may learn new skills that actually allow him or her to function better than before the symptoms began.

Source: http://www.webmd.com/mental-health/mental-health-adjustment-disorder

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A Look at Borderline Personality Disorder

BPD is listed in the DSM as a newly recognised personality disorder. Having five or more of the following symptoms is a prerequisite for being diagnosed:

· Experiencing a roller coaster of emotions (eg. Feeling happy and confident one day and desperate and despairing another).
Note: Key emotions associated with the disorder are a sense of emptiness and intense anger or rage
· Problems with forming and maintaining relationships
· Having an unstable identity (That is, the way you see and feel about yourself depends on who are with, and their view of you )
· Engaging in impulsive and risky behaviours without considering the consequences (For example, having sexual flings, or changing partners frequently)
· Engaging in self-harm or substance abuse
· Desperately fearing rejection or abandonment
· Occasionally experiencing hallucinations or delusions.
Individuals diagnosed with BPD also tend to have other mental health concerns, like anxiety, depression, fears and phobias, eating disorders and substance abuse. They also go from one unstable and intense relationship to an equally unhealthy relationship.

In romantic relationships and close friendships, they are clingy, insecure and have low self-worth (which often leads to feelings of jealousy). Thus although they seek for closeness and intimacy their sense of neediness can make this hard to sustain.

In other social relationships, they continually battle with low self-esteem, expect to be judged, and don’t feel like they belong. Thus, they expect these relationships to disappoint and fail.

It is unclear what causes borderline personality disorder. It is believed to be due to a combination of factors, including: innate temperament, difficult early life experiences (such as a major house move, the loss of a parent through death or divorce, childhood neglect, or some kind of abuse), and experiencing ongoing or significant stress. However, this is not the case with all sufferers.

In terms of treatment and support, the main thing to target is the person’s need for love, unconditional acceptance and a chance to be heard. Often, talking therapy is very useful here – as well access to a person when they’re feeling overwhelmed. (That is, having access to some kind of crisis counselling). Usually, medication is only prescribed to treat related symptoms like anxiety.

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7 Strange Mental Disorders

1. Capgras delusion theory - Being convinced that a friend or family member has been kidnapped and replaced by an identical-looking impostor.

2. Alice-in-Wonderland syndrome (or Todd’s syndrome) - A temporary condition caused by migraines, brain tumors or psychoactive drugs. It is a form of perceptual distortion where the individual thinks they have grown in size or that other people, animals and objects have shrunk in size.

3. Celebriphilia - An overwhelming obsession and desire to have a romantic relationship with a celebrity.

4. Hybristophilia -Being sexually aroused by, or falling in love with, someone who has committed a heinous crime.

5. Cotard’s syndrome or walking corpse syndrome – Believing you are dead and putrefying, or have lost all your blood, or have no internal organs.

6. Reduplicative paramnesia – An unusual delusion where the person believes that a building has been relocated without their knowledge, or exists in two places or dimensions at the same time.

7. Pica – A rare eating disorder where the person believes that non-edible items are, in fact, edible. Hence, they start eating items like rocks, hair, plastic and dirt.

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Avoidant Personality Disorder

Avoidant Personality Disorder (AVPD) is a recognised disorder which is characterized by a hypersensitivity to criticism, intense self loathing and a strong desire to isolate themselves. Sufferers believe that they lack social skills, and feel they don’t know or understand “the rules”. Hence, they tend to avoid social situations to avoid the pain of rejection by others.

People in a close relationship with them often feel frustrated by the person’s tendency to pull away from them and avoid other people. They also find it hard to lead an active social life as the sufferer refuses to go to events such as family gathering, work parties and so on. Also, they may feel pressurised to cut themselves off, too, and live in a bubble with the AVPD person. This can be a source of stress for the person and the extended family.

Although people with AVPD will generally display a number of the traits outlined below, each person is unique and different. (Also, most of us display avoidant traits at times but that doesn’t mean we have AVPD).

Symptoms and traits include the following:“always” & “never” statements; blaming; catastrophizing (automatically assuming a “worst case scenario”); circular conversations (endless arguments which repeat the same patterns); “control-me” syndrome (a tendency to form relationships with people who are controlling, narcissistic or antisocial); dependency; depression; emotional blackmail; false accusations; fear of abandonment; hypervigilance;  identity disturbance ( a distorted view of oneself); impulsivity; lack of object constancy (the inability to remember that people or objects are consistent and reliable over time – regardless of whether you can see them or not); low self-esteem; mood swings;  objectification (treating a person like an object); panic attacks; passive aggressive behaviour; projection (attributing one’s own feelings or traits onto another); self-hatred; “playing the victim” and thought policing (trying to question, control, or unduly influence another person’s thoughts, feelings and behaviours.)

Specifically, the DSM-IV-TR, defines Avoidant Personality Disorder (AvPD) as being:

A pervasive pattern of social inhibition, feelings of inadequacy, and hypersensitivity to negative evaluation, beginning by early adulthood and present in a variety of contexts, as indicated by four (or more) of the following:

1. Avoids occupational activities that involve significant interpersonal contact, because of fears of criticism, disapproval, or rejection.

2. Is unwilling to get involved with people unless certain of being liked.

3. Shows restraint initiating intimate relationships because of the fear of being ashamed, ridiculed, or rejected due to severe low self-worth.

4. Is preoccupied with being criticized or rejected in social situations.

5. Is inhibited in new interpersonal situations because of feelings of inadequacy.

6. Views self as socially inept, personally unappealing, or inferior to others

7. Is unusually reluctant to take personal risks or to engage in any new activities because they may prove embarrassing.

A formal diagnosis must be made by a mental health professional.

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Overdependency in Relationships

Overdependency is:

·  Desperately holding on to other people, places or things in an attempt to find meaning and purpose in your life.

·  Letting others do so much for you that it prevents you from developing your own sense of personal autonomy, independence, responsibility and accountability.

·  Being unwilling to let go of others so that you can find your own direction in life.

·  Refusing to formulate your own goals and dreams in case they don’t match those of the people you are dependent on.

·  Having a feeling of emptiness and worthlessness; feeling you “need to be needed” in order to be loved; or having your whole identity wrapped up in someone else.

·  Thinking sympathy and pity are the same thing as love.

·  Having a desperate need for approval; desperately fearing rejection and abandonment by the person you are dependent on; being clingy, possessive and jealous.

·  Lacking a belief in your own competency and ability to cope on your own.

·  Feeling stuck and immobilised because of a fear of failure, or the fear of making the wrong decision.

·  Having a fear of loneliness – which causes you to cling desperately to someone – even when you should let them go.

Overdependency is a control issue because:

·  You are handing control of your life and happiness over to someone else.

·  When you become too dependent on someone, you give them the power to control you.

·  People who are overdependent frequently use manipulation and other subversive control techniques to “hook” others into taking care of them – so that they can rescue, fix or save you. Alternatively, they may use intimidation, threats and coercion.

· They use the same hooks to prevent the person from detaching and walking away (For example, by threatening suicide)

· They may use the mask of “helplessness” to get others to take care of them, and do things for them.

· When forming close relationships, they deliberately look “fixers,” “caretakers” and “rescuers” – that is, they seek out people who are likely to assume responsibility for their wellbeing.

Freedom from overdependency:

·  First, recognise what is going on and be honest with yourself about your patterns and tendencies.

·  Second, recognise that you are a separate person from your partner (or family member). Thus, it’s up to you to assume responsibility for your own choices, decisions and actions (or lack of choosing, deciding and acting). In the same way, stop assume responsibility for, or try to control, the choices and behaviors of others. Don’t speak and act for them, don’t tell them what to do (or how to do it) or redo what they’ve done (as it isn’t the way you would have done it.)

· Notice your negative feelings – anxiety, fear, and even terror – and learn to face and manage these. This is one of the most powerful things you can do!

· Next, notice how critical you become when others don’t do things your way, or meet the standards that you set for them. Also, notice how you act in response to these feelings. Do you jump in, try to fix, get angry, pout, withdraw sexually and emotionally? It’s time to get rid of those unhealthy behaviours as they’re part of the pattern of dependency.

· Consciously work on your self-esteem.  Don’t look to others to make you happy, or to feel you have worth and significance. Healthy self-esteem comes from the inside out.

· Recognise the value of boundaries – and know where you end and another begins. Learn to establish and enforce your boundaries, and accept that others can choose for themselves – so don’t manipulate to try and get your way.

·  Stop blaming others for making you upset. We have control of how we think and feel. You’re not a helpless victim – you can choose how you will live, and what you will accept in your relationships.

· Don’t take the flack for, or defend others’ behaviour. Allow them let them to feel the consequences of their actions. Stop defending and enabling them.

· Get professional help.  Being dependent in relationships often has its roots in our early childhood experiences. You may some need help to unravel that, and better understand why you act the way you do.

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Spotting a Psychopath

At the movies, it’s easy to spot the psychopath. He’s the one with the charm and the smile, the one who’s ready to stab you with a knife. But it’s not so easy when it’s everyday life – and we’re not trained as doctors or as psychiatrists. However, professionals have highlighted a few warning signs that might indicate that this could be a psychopath. They include:

• Playing on our sympathy: Psychopaths will use us, will hurt and rip us off – then heartlessly play to our sympathetic feelings - and we blindly believe them and tend to let them off. But if this happens often, it shows a lack of conscience so don’t be fooled by their cheap and empty words.

• Being manipulative: Psychopaths, in general, love to play with your emotions. They want you to jump, squirm, feel anxious or afraid.

 • Being a parasite: The psychopath will use their charm and persuasion to get you to pay, or to meet their various needs. There’s rarely any benefit or payoff for you. You’re just being exploited – you’re a pawn in their hands. 

• Being deceitful: They’re con men who’ll trick you and lie constantly. Their life is a deception; you can’t trust a word. But if you point to a snag in their tangled web of lies they’ll vehemently deny it, and jump to their defence. 

• Highly charming: Psychopaths are usually charismatic characters. That is, they’re often mesmerizing, can pull in a crowd, and make a person feel like they’re a famous movie star. But it won’t last forever … they drop you and move on.

• Conceited: Psychopaths are caught up with themselves and their importance. They’re boastful, proud, haughty, heartless, arrogant – and like to undermine, criticise and put you down.

• Never accepting blame: The psychopath believes that they are never to blame - and they won’t accept any culpability.

• Being highly reactive: Although psychopaths can quickly cover up their anger, they will overreact to perceived slights and offences … or to insufficient deference, recognition and respect.

• Risk-takers: These types of individuals are extreme risk takers who draw in others to their games, schemes and plans. They’re hungry for power and they seek control – regardless of the risks or the danger this entails.

Note: Research indicates that psychopaths cannot be treated.  So put up your guard and keep a healthy distance – and don’t ever form a relationship with them.

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Avoidant (or Anxious) Personality Disorder

This is very similar to generalized social phobia. Those with the disorder think of themselves as being inadequate, unlikeable and socially inept. They fear being rejected, criticised or ridiculed and would rather avoid most social situations. The reasons can differ may be related to emotional neglect and peer group rejection in childhood and/ or adolescence. Symptoms may include the following:

- Hypersensitivity to rejection/criticism

- Self-imposed social isolation

- Extreme shyness or anxiety in social situations. (However, the person still has a strong desire for close and meaningful relationships)

-  May avoid physical contact with others (because it is associated with emotional or physical pain)

- Painful feelings of inadequacy

- Poor self-esteem

- Intense feelings of self consciousness

- Self hatred or self-loathing

- Mistrust of others

- Emotional distancing/ fear of intimacy

- Highly critical of their ability to relate naturally and appropriately to others

- Do not feel they can connect with others (although others may view them as easy to relate to)

- Intense feelings of inferiority.

- In more extreme cases, may suffer from agoraphobia.

Treatment approaches include social skills training, cognitive therapy, gradually increasing exposure to social situations, group therapy and, occasionally, drug therapy. Gaining and keeping the client’s trust is essential for progress to be made.

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Profile of a Sociopath

What we refer to as a sociopath is officially a person diagnosed as suffering from antisocial personality disorder. This is the third time the name has changed. The original description was “morally insane.” This was later changed to someone with a “psychopathic personality” – before the most recent name change. Common characteristics include the following:

· Superficial and insincere charm. Hence, they may blind people around them with their charm and wit - but it’s never genuine.

· Being domineering, manipulative and abusive.

· Expert con men. Have no problem lying; are often caught up in a web of lies, and display no remorse if their lying is uncovered.

· View people as instruments and victims for their own use. In their mind, “the end justifies the means” so they don’t allow anyone to stand in their way.

· Often derive pleasure from hurting and humiliating their victims.

· Are in love with themselves, and have a grandiose sense of what they deserve and are entitled to. For example, they see themselves as being above the Law.

· Beating the system and breaking the law without getting caught is a game for them. In fact, winning is the key motivator for this person – in everything they do and in all relationships.

· Have shallow emotions. Any warm expressive shows are merely feigned and are likely to serve an ulterior motive. They’re incapable of love and can’t experience empathy. Hence, they’re contemptuous of those who feel and show distress.

· Lack impulse control and live on the edge. They are huge risk takers so promiscuity, illegal drugs and gambling are all common. They are also likely to demonstrate criminal or entrepreneurial versatility.

· Refuses to accept responsibility for their actions. Are quick to blame others even when it’s clear that they themselves are to blame.

· Has a history of antisocial behaviours before age 15. This may take the form of repeatedly conning others, being disaffected at school, being involved in criminal activities (such as theft and arson), hurting others without remorse and being cruel to animals.

It is crucial to grasp that there is no known cure for a person diagnosed as a sociopath. In fact, it appears that therapy may even make them worse as they use what they’ve learned about human nature to exploit other peoples’ vulnerabilities. They then become more astute at manipulating others and have better excuses that are more believable.

Note: All psychopaths are sociopaths but not all sociopath are psychopaths. Psychopaths have an anti-social personality disorder that is accompanied by aggressiveness.

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What is Borderline Personality Disorder?

A doctor will diagnose borderline personality disorder in persons who have five or more of these symptoms and if the symptoms have a significant impact on them.

- Having emotions that are up and down (for example, feeling confident one day and feeling despair another), with feelings of emptiness and often anger

- Difficulty in making and maintaining relationships

- Having an unstable sense of identity, such as thinking differently about yourself depending on who you are with

- Taking risks or doing things without thinking about the consequences

- Harming yourself or thinking about harming yourself (for example, cutting yourself or overdosing)

- Fearing being abandoned or rejected or being alone

- Sometimes believing in things that are not real or true (called delusions) or seeing or hearing things that are not really there (called hallucinations).

Note: People with borderline personality disorder have high rates of other mental health related problems, such as depression, anxiety, eating disorders and substance misuse (drugs or alcohol).

What helps people with BPD?

- People with BPD have a strong need to feel accepted, heard and understood.

- They need a sense of safety; for instance consistent people and places where they can become attached while working through their difficulties.

- There are a growing number of talking therapies that may help, when a person is ready and able.

- Medication has helped some people to cope with difficult thoughts and feelings.

Source: http://www.mind.org.uk/help/diagnoses_and_conditions/borderline_personality_disorder (Abridged)

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How to Deal with a Narcissist

1. Don’t expect empathy, understanding or praise and recognition from a narcissistic person.  Keep your private thoughts and feelings close to your heart, and don’t open up and make yourself vulnerable.

2. Expect them to be rude and to say offensive things.

3. Don’t be offended by the things they say and do as it’s not about you – they treat others the same way.

4. Make a lot of their achievements and praise them publicly as they’re always looking to be noticed and affirmed.

5. Don’t try to get a narcissist to see things differently as they’re not going to change, or be influenced by you.  

6. Understand that a narcissist is going to drain you dry – and will guilt you into think that you haven’t done enough. But it’s actually not true. They just can’t be satisfied.   

7. Don’t push for a meaningful relationship with them as it will always be one-sided … look for love from someone else.

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Some Strange and Rare Psychological Disorders

1. Trichotillomania is where the sufferer is overcome by the powerful urge to pull out their own hair. This is includes eyelashes, scalp and facial hair, and even pubic hair. Where the person also consumes the hair, it can lead to something called “Rapunzel Syndrome” (intestinal problems caused by the body’s inability to digest human hair).

2. Foreign Accent Syndrome is usually the result of experiencing a stroke or severe brain injury. It results in the person speaking with a different accent – and one that they haven’t been exposed to personally. For example, an American will speak with a British accent or a Brit may start sound as if they’re from New York.

3. Genital Retraction Syndrome is exactly what the name implies. It’s the irrational belief that the genitals or breasts are physically shrinking, and will disappear inside the person’s body – and will lead to their death.

4. Windigo Psychosis is where the person is fighting a constant craving for human flesh. At the same time, he or she also is afraid that they will become a cannibal.

5. Body Integrity Identity Disorder is rare and difficult to comprehend.  It is where the individual is convinced that their life would be significantly better if they were amputees – hence they feel the urge to have a healthy limb removed.  However, this leads to a psychiatric diagnosis and not the removal of their limb! 

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8 Strange Personality Disorders

Millions of people across the world are diagnosed as suffering from mental illness. And though most of those are disorders are common and well-known (such as depression, anxiety and phobias) there are also some unusual and bizarre disorders. For example:

1. Stockholm Syndrome – Typically seen in abducted hostages, this is where the captive shows signs of sympathy, compassion and loyalty towards the hostage taker. This occurs regardless of the way they have been treated – and even where they’ve been tortured or their life is under threat.  

2. Lima Syndrome – This is the opposite of the previous syndrome. It’s where the hostage taker is extremely concerned for the plight and wellbeing of the hostages.

3. Diogenes Syndrome – This disorder is marked by severe self neglect, compulsive hoarding, reclusive tendencies, and keeping large numbers of animals at home.

4. Paris Syndrome – This is very exclusive disorder … one restricted to Japanese tourists in Paris (It’s true!) The sufferer experiences a total mental breakdown when the city fails to meet their cultural expectations (Paris is rarely as polite, romantic, peaceful and idyllic as the tourists had imagined). To cope with this experience, their embassy established a 24hr hotline to help those with the syndrome.

5. Jerusalem Syndrome – People diagnosed with this particular disorder experience delusions and spontaneous psychosis after visiting a holy city. To date, all identified sufferers have had a history of mental illness, or some kind of psychosis.

6. Capgras Delusion – In this rare disorder, the individual believes that a friend or family member has been abducted and replaced by an impostor (who looks identical to them). It is generally seen in those with schizophrenia, dementia, or some kind of brain injury.

7. Fregoli Delusion – This is the exact opposite of Capgras delusion. It is the false belief that numerous different people are actually one person who keeps changing their disguise.

8. Cotard Delusion – A person suffering from this delusion believes that they don’t exist, are dead, are putrefying or have no blood or internal organs.

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Personality Disorders

DSM-IV lists ten different personality disorders. These are grouped into three clusters: odd or eccentric disorders; dramatic, emotional or erratic disorders; and

anxious or fearful disorders. These can be summarised as follows:

1.   Odd or Eccentric Disorders

a) Paranoid personality disorder: This is characterised by irrational suspicions and a deep mistrust of others.

b) Schizoid personality disorder: This is characterised by a lack of interest in other people, and no need or desire for relationships.

c) Schizotypal personality disorder: This is characterised by bizarre thought patterns and behaviours.

2.   Dramatic, Emotional or Erratic Disorders

a) Antisocial personality disorder: This is characterised by a blatant and pervasive disregard for authority, the law and the rights of others.

b) Borderline personality disorder: This is characterised by rigid, categorical and extreme “black and white” thinking. Also, instability in their relationships with others, a poor self-image, low self-esteem, impulsivity and behaviour which results in self-harm.

c) Histrionic personality disorder: This is characterised by attention-seeking behaviour. For example, behaving in ways that are inappropriately seductive, or displaying exaggerated emotions.

d) Narcissistic personality disorder: This is characterised by grandiose claims and behaviours, a need for admiration, and a lack of empathy. This individual also finds it hard to relate in meaningful ways to others.

3.   Anxious or Fearful Disorders

a) Avoidant personality disorder: This is characterised by social inhibition, feelings of inadequacy, extreme sensitivity to negative evaluation, and avoidance of social situations.

b) Dependent personality disorder: This is characterised by an inappropriate psychological dependence on others.

c) Obsessive-compulsive personality disorder (This is different from obsessive-compulsive disorder): It is characterised by rigid conformity to rules and moral codes – with an excessive need for orderliness.

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How Parenting Style Affects Personality

There are 4 main parenting styles:

1. Authoritarian Parenting: Here, the child is expected to follow the rules – and failure leads to punishment. There is no discussion or explanation related to why the rules exist, and no negotiation with children over rules. Instead, children are expected to obey, right away, and without questioning their parents.

In terms of personality, children raised by authoritarian parents are typically compliant, obedient, reliable are obedient and proficient. However, they often suffer from depression, rate themselves lower on subjective happiness, are less socially competent and have low self-esteem.

2. Authoritative Parenting: These parents also establish rules and guidelines for their children. However, the main difference here is that parents are willing to provide explanations, listen to children’s questions, and occasionally negotiate a compromise. Parents are also less harsh, and more understanding and forgiving when children fail to meet their expectations. These parents do not set out to raise submissive, obedient individuals. Rather, they want their children to be responsible, appropriately assertive, self-regulating and co-operative individuals.

In terms of personality, children raised by authoritive parents fair the best of all. They are generally, confident, capable, competent happy, socially well adjusted and successful in life.

3. Permissive parents: These are also described as indulgent parents. They make few demands on their children, rarely discipline their children, and don’t require their children to be responsible and self-controlled. They are often very high in nurturing and treat their children more like friends.

In terms of personality, children raised by permissive parenting are often unhappy adults. They have poorer self-regulation and self-control, many experience problems with authority, and they tend to perform poorly in school, and then the work place.

4. Uninvolved Parenting: As the name suggests, this type of parent makes few demands, rarely communicates, and is generally unresponsiveness to the needs of their children. Although the child’s essential needs are cared for, their emotional needs are neglected so the child often feels rejected and unloved.

In terms of personality, children raised by uninvolved parents have the worst outcome – in all areas of life (emotional wellbeing, life satisfaction, success in relationship, success at school and work etc). Many lack self-control, the majority have low self-esteem, and they tend to be less competent in  social and practical life situations.

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